Lavender farming is really easy and it only requires ideal growing conditions and extra space. Now it’s time to get ready for Part 2: Cuttings! It was used as an insecticide to protect linens from moths. When choosing a lavender cultivar the first decision is to distinguish between use for essential oil production, cut flower production, or ornamental use. Martini, A. It is widely cultivated for nursery production and also grown commercially as a source of essential oil. 113-6. This cultivar was developed by the late Ted Torrey, head plant breeder for W. Atlee Burpee & Company. This plant is a 2-3 foot shrub with fragrant, lilac-colored spikes blooming in midsummer. Rodale’s Illustrated Encyclopedia of Herbs. Harvested lavender has many uses; you can make fresh or dried arrangements or wreaths, or process it to use in soaps, candles, and cosmetics. Chingova-Boyadzhieva, B., Staikov, B. G. Doyle’, which he calls dark supreme lavender, and ‘Susan Belsinger.’. When it comes to lavender, more is always better ... Propagation Tags Edible Flowers, Lavender, Medicinal Plants, Mint ... or small pebbles – to a 6-inch pot, then fill it with a commercial potting medium or mix your own. Linalol is a terpene alcohol that is non-toxic to humans, yet naturally antimicrobial. Germination study of lavender seeds. pp. It was determined that the giberellic treatments, with or without pre-freezing, significantly increased the percentage of germination and accelerated overall germination rates (Aoyama, 1996). Both leaf size and plant height (3 ft) are larger in lavandin when compared to English lavender. Grieve, M. Lavenders. Weed control is especially important during the first two years of growth as the plants become established. Cultivars with dark flowers include Twickle Purple, Dwarf Blue, Hidcote, Royal Purple, Loddon Blue, Middachten Nana Atropurperea, Mitcham Cray, Munstead, and Summerland Supreme. The spikes are composed of whorls or rings of flowers, each composed of six to ten flowers; the lower whorls becoming more distant from each other. Induced polyploidy in lavender. This is a statewide program but focuses on the needs of the small and medium size farms that make up the agricultural landscape of western North Carolina, and new farmers, hobby farmers, organic gardeners, and specialty crop producers across the eastern U.S. NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. Uncovered flats are placed in a partially shaded greenhouse for propagation. Cuttings are placed in a soil medium composed of one part perlite and one part peat moss (11x21x2 1/2-inch plastic flats which hold 100-300 cuttings). The results indicated that flaming with this machine significantly reduced weeds but that the lavender plants were susceptible to damage if sufficient care was not taken (Martini, 1996). This heavy pruning stimulates growth from the base of the plant. Commercial lavender oil is readily available to purchase as an ingredient for personal care items such as soaps, which are often viewed as an affordable luxury. Lavandin, Lavendula. Davis in 2017 and 2020. Lavender oil contains up to 40% linalyl acetate and 30% linalol. In addition, he found that the sand increased flower and oil production when compared to a control group of plants which were not mulched. Herbal Renaissance. Dip the stripped tip of the cutting in rooting hormone, if desired. 47(3):223-235. Herbal Bounty. Walker, J. English lavender varieties are more susceptible to vascular wilts than lavandin varieties. Propagating lavender from cuttings is also fairly easy to do and you can use the same method for other plants like … Recent studies have found that essential oils from this extraordinary species can replace chemical methods currently in use to suppress sprouting in potato tubers for storage (Vokou, 1993). This species grows in Spain and warm temperate regions. L. angustifolia, L. x intermedia, L. latifolia, and L. stoeches all contain the antioxidant rosmarinic acid (Foster, 1993). Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), disability, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, and veteran status. Slow growth rates should be expected in the first year (6-8 in). Written by Joe-Ann McCoy, Ph.D. 1999. Tissue culture propagated plants can be purchased, however. Cuscuta epithymum– Dodder vine – (parasitic flowering plant) Hussein, M., El-Saeid, E., El-Sherbeny, S. 1996. This is NOT the way to efficiently prune lavender! The Bootstrap Guide to Medicinal Herbs in the Garden, Field and Marketplace. Effects of aromatic plants on potato storage: sprout suppression and antimicrobial activity. Lavandins produce large, long stemmed flowers which are slightly gray in color while English lavender (Lavendula angustifolia) varieties produce shorter-stemmed flowers with a blue color when dried. The highest percentage of rooting was obtained from 8-10 cm long, 1-year-old cuttings in open beds in October-November (Boyadzhieva et al., 1977). In a 1992 study on the micropropagation of Lavenders and Lavandins, a tissue culture protocol was established for the mass propagation of disease free plantlets from commercial hybrid stock plants. Climate is a critical factor in growing the lavender plant. A crop harvested for dried flower purposes should be harvested when the first few florets are open. L. Sawyers, is another hybrid (L. angustifolia and L. lanata) which is considered half-hardy. pp. These free-blooming plants are best rooted from hardwood cuttings. Our high humidity and rainfall present the biggest challenges to lavender, so plant in an area where it will get good air flow, too. Essential oils are accumulated in the flowers and flower stalks. Kowalchik, C., and Hylton, W., Eds. Thomas DeBaggio of DeBaggio Herbs in Arlington, VA, has reported that lavenders develop optimally with 33 inches of annual rainfall. McGimpsey, J. ... Propagation of lavandins from seed is not usually recommended in order to produce plants true to type. Aromatherapy: Evidence for sedative effects of the essential oil of lavender after inhalation. Leaves are 1 1/4 inch long; linear-oblong with rounded teeth at margins, grayish in color and covered with soft fuzz. One of the easiest ways to propagate lavender is by taking cuttings - and the best time to take cuttings is after flowering. He nips the buds and removes all leaves from the bottom half of the cuttings. Hortscience 19(4):595. Dr. A. O. Tucker advises using one to two inches of white sand as a mulch around plants to reduce fungal pathogen infection. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Once rooted, cut the new plants from the mother plants and transfer to individual pots. Preliminary testing was performed on lavender field crops to test a prototype machine designed to control weeds by flaming. 1996. 1992. It can reach 3 feet in height and spread. Softwood cuttings from lavender root in two to four weeks, and hardwood cuttings take a little longer. If damaged plants are present, remove and destroy any infected plant material and avoid replanting with susceptible varieties. ... Propagation The best time to take cuttings from lavender plants is right after they have ... Royal Velvet 24-36" 24" 5 Dk. Tsachev, S., Zlatev, S., Neshev, M. 1976. Learning how to propagate is a fun and important skill for a lavender grower to learn, so we wanted to share our process with you. 1994. The machine was mounted on a trailer and the crop rows were protected by lateral bulkheads. She was director of the Germplasm Repository at the NC Arboretum for many years and is now a private consultant on native botanicals. In all my experience as a commercial gardener I haven’t seen lavender spread in this way, so it is not something you should worry about in your garden. In a germination study of lavender seeds, the effects of gibberellic acid, light/dark regimes, and pre-freezing were studied. In a study in Europe (Boyadzhieva et al., 1977), optimal rooting was achieved with 8-10 cm long cuttings from 1-year-old plantings set in open beds in October and November. The Herb Companion. SEEDS. Sign up to get all the latest gardening tips! U. S. Department of Agriculture. Herb garden favorites around the world. Culpeper (1652) in his book, The English Physitian, wrote for his description of lavender simply, “This is so well known, being an Inhabitant in almost every Garden, that it needeth no Description.”. 13(9):105-111. Results of a comparative study of lavender varieties. Purchasing lavender seedlings or taking cuttings from existing plants is an easier way to grow lavender. Lavender species of commercial importance are native to the mountainous regions of the countries bordering the western half of the Mediterranean region of Europe. A thick layer of mulch is recommended after the first frost. Today on Wisconsin Wonder Garden you will learn how to take cuttings from your Lavender and more importantly HOW TO GET THEM TO GROW! Medicinal uses include treatment of headache, hysteria, nervous palpitations, hoarseness, palsy, toothaches, sore joints, apoplexy, colic, coughs, and rumbling digestive systems. Feed the plant with one-quarter strength liquid plant fertilizer once a week. A collection of lavenders. These include choice of cultivar, use of soil amendments, how and when flowers are gathered (optimal when flowers are fully expanded), how quickly the harvest is distilled, and how it is distilled (steam distillation is better than water). Commercial Lavender Planting Growing Commercial Lavender in the Midwest Peaceful Acres Lavender Farm is located in growing Zone 5. The 2-lipped corolla is a bluish-violet color. The name “lavender” comes from the Latin verb lavare “to wash” or “to bathe.” There are approximately 20 species of lavender with hundreds of various genotypes differentiated by variations ranging from growth form to chemical composition of essential oil. Lavender plant is originated in Mediterranean region. Of these the principal is linalyl acetate and the second in linalyl butyrate. Flowers are produced in terminating one-half-inch-long spikes from the young shoots, on long stems. Commercial potting soils have plenty of nutrients to maintain the plants without supplemental feedings. If you’re new to plant propagation, taking lavender cuttings in summer is a good way to start as they root easily and will provide you with lots of new plants for free.. Want to see which lists are available? Lavender can grow in abundance under the right conditions, and taking cuttings can be an ideal way to spread more lavender around your garden. Here is a step-by-step guide on how to propagate lavender from … If seed… Lavender Production, Products, Markets, and Entertainment Farms This publication is intended for a beginning lavender grower with some horticultural experience. The spirituous tincture of the dried leaves or seeds, if prudently given, cures hysterik fits though vehement and of long standing.”. 14(6):77-85. Sign up for our newsletter. The NC Alternative Crops and Organics Program, led by Jeanine Davis in the Department of Horticultural Science, helps farmers improve the sustainability and profitability of their farms through exploration of new crop opportunities, testing of improved varieties and production practices for conventional and organic vegetable growers, and development of environmentally friendly production systems. and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Lavender is harvested mechanically in foreign countries using specially designed machinery for essential oil purposes although it is harvested by hand for cut flower production. A collection of lavenders, Part 2. 663-666. Tissue culture (syn., in vitro culture, micropropagation) methods have been developed for the mass propagation of lavender varieties from hybrid stock plants. 1991. Of the various blue cultivars, Irene Doyle (Tucker, 1984) is considered unique in its ability to flower twice. Remove the plastic bag when the cutting has roots. Phytophthora spp. All you’ll need is an established lavender plant, time, and patience. Horticultural cultivars include Dutch, Grappenhall, Hidcote Giant, Old English, Provence, Seal, and Silver Gray. Closer to home Thomas DeBaggio successfully propagates lavender from stem tip cuttings. CUTTINGS. Hardiest plants are English lavender (L. angustifolia), Lavandin (L. x intermedia) and spike lavender (L. spica, or L. latifolia). Agronomie (Paris). Removed plants are divided into approximately 3 plants each and replanted in new rows. Crop & Food Research. Set the cutting aside while you prepare the container. He recommends a mix of one part coarse perlite to one part sterilized, baked clay frit (cat litter). (Buchbauer et al. Any individual interested in lavender production needs to understand the complicated taxonomy of Lavendula species before attempting to choose a cultivar. Working hand-in-hand with our partners at N.C. A&T and 101 local governments, we conduct groundbreaking research that addresses real-world issues in communities across the state. You will automatically get notified when we post news to this site. Lavandin is a sterile hybrid and must be vegetatively propagated. Hankins, A. In order to discourage fungal pathogens, good air circulation is advised and can be achieved by spacing plants 2-3 feet apart and trimming the lower branches throughout the growing season. Phytophthora nicotianae– root rot N.C. English Lavender, Lavendula angustifolia, is the most widely cultivated species (synonyms – L. vera, L. latifola, L. officinalis, L. spica, L. delphinensis). Few plants can match the all-around versatility of lavender. DeBaggio recommends fertilizing every three weeks during the first year of growth and irrigating once a week during dry periods. Most lavenders are hardy to USDA zones 5 to 9, but if you live in an area where the winter temperatures get below about -10 degrees F, consider taking some cuttings of your favorite plants in early fall and growing them indoors over the winter in case your outdoor plants freeze out. Pile up 2-3 inches of bark under the stem section and make a shallow depression in the top of the pile. San Juan Naturals, WA. Propagating Lavender Plants You can start lavender from hardwood or softwood cuttings. Uses for Lavender Lavender has a lot of uses around the home including potpourri, cut flowers, dried sachets, soap, scented satchels and pillows, essential oils, and even in the kitchen. Lavender was used as an ingredient in smelling salts and was used to disinfect wounds during wartime. International symposium on medicinal and aromatic plants, Amherst, MA (1995). Read on to learn more. Ideal Soil For Lavender Farm. No need to register, buy now! Studies on the vegetative propagation of lavender. If a good cover crop had been grown or manure was added to the field before planting, fertilization may not be necessary for several years. English lavender varieties are better suited for dried flower production than Lavandin varieties. There are also various questions to address when choosing a variety, such as whether the plant is being chosen for essential oil production, cut flower production, or dried ornamental use. Lavender is 70-80% water and takes 7 to 14 days to dry. In mid-April, DeBaggio prunes field-grown established plants heavily by removing 1/3 to 1/2 of the stem length all over the plant. When full grown, leaves become greener and extend up to 2 1/2 in long, with scattered hairs above, smooth or finely downy beneath, with the margins only slightly revolute. Bioactivity of Lamiaceae plants against insects. pp. With cuttings, you can rest assured that your new plants will be exactly like the parent plants. Fusarium – root rot They root quickly but aren’t as reliable as hardwood cuttings. Roman superstition persisted that the asp (a dangerous viper) made his nest in lavender bushes which drove up the price of the plant and made it necessary to approach it with caution. Researchers in Bulgaria have experimented with the reconstruction of lavender planting to wide-row spacing in regard to mechanized cultivation and harvest (Tsachev, 1976). Few insect problems have been reported on field-grown lavender. L. latifolia oil has alpha-pinene, camphene, beta-pinene, sabinene, betamyrcene, 1,8-cineole (up to 33%), beta-cymene, linaloyl oxide, camphor (~5%), and linalool (up to 25%), among other constituents. Frontier Natural Products Coop. Other historical uses include embalming corpses, curing animals of lice, taming lions and tigers, repelling mosquitoes, snuff flavoring, and as an ingredient in special lacquers and varnishes. Oliver, P. 1996. www.med.yale.edu/library/historical/culpeper/culpeper.htm. Softwood cuttings are taken from the soft, pliable tips of new growth. If you are starting a large-scale lavender farm, you must have a proper marketing planning. Linalyl acetate, its acetic ester, has a pleasant, sweet, fruity, aroma which along with its antimicrobial properties makes lavender unique. It is grown primarily for its essential oil and is rare in the U.S. Current research from the Netherlands has proven that essential oils of Lavandula angustifolia suppress sprouting in potato tubers and are also antimicrobial. Buchbauer, G., Jirovetz, L., Jaeger, W., Dietrich, H., Plank, C., Karamat, E. 1991. Describe the production processes on a lavender farm. The maximum value of essential oil was obtained with S as a 1% foliar application (Hussein et al., 1996). ‘Irene Doyle’ Lavender. navy blue/lavender/blooms 2x yr. Lavender oil is soluble in all proportions of alcohol. Flowers for oil production are harvested when at about 50% blooming. Yale Medical Library. Propagation by seed creates overlapping traits and further variation within cultivars. Find more gardening information on Gardening Know How: Keep up to date with all that's happening in and around the garden. In Part 1 of our propagation blog series we looked at what propagation is, and why you may want to propagate your lavender. Cultivars with gray foliage are quite susceptible to infection. Vokou, D., Vareltizidou, S., Katinakis, P. 1993. Commercial uses can include essential oil production, cosmetic manufacturing, sale to restaurants (salads, food flavorings), sachets, tea, potpourri, soaps, or sale of ornamental plants. Yield and quality of lavender in relation to foliar application of sulphur and phosphorus. The majority of the oil extracted from the flowers is contained in the glands on the calyx. According to a reliable source, Provence (Lavandula x intermedia) and Grosso (Lavandula x intermedia) do well in western NC and there is a relatively new cultivar called Phenomenal (Lavandula x intermedia) that is hardy to zone 4. Keep rooting sections moist and expect transferable plants within 2 weeks to 2 months depending on environmental conditions (Oliver, 1996). Wait several days between tugs, as you can damage tender young roots by tugging on them too often. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. The cultivars of Lavender and Lavandin (Labiatae). New Crop Development in New Zealand. Response of lavender plants to different nitrogen sources. Lavender propagation by Lavender cuttings is easy to do if you have a large Lavender already growing in your garden. There are two esters in the oil which are the primary source for the odor of lavender. Propagation by seed creates overlapping traits and further variation within cultivars. In vitro morphogenetic potential of various lavandin and lavender clones: Preliminary observations on the agronomic value of the vitroplants. The positive influence of foliar applications of sulfur (1%) and phosphorus (1%) on the yields, volatile oil and minerals of lavender was studied during 2 successive seasons in Egypt. Once it roots, the new stem is treated just like any other lavender start that would be grown from seed. 1997). plants grown from seed are variable in growth habit, colour and essential oil composition. The traditional uses of lavender range from use as a perfume to a antimicrobial agent. Septoria lavandulae -­ leaf spot According to Jim Duke, (retired botanist, USDA) annual rainfall can range from 12-54 inches per year for lavender cultivation (Foster, 1993). N.C. During the Middle ages it was considered an herb of love and was used as an aphrodisiac. if seeds are to be used, these should be sown in late spring or early summer. It requires good drainage and prefers a warm, well-drained loam with a slope to the south or southwest. You can start lavender from hardwood or softwood cuttings. The calyx is tubular and ribbed, with thirteen veins, purple-gray in color, five-toothed and hairy with shiny oil glands among the hairs visible with a hand lens. To propagate by layering, select a long, healthy flexible stem and remove 4-6 inches of foliage, leaving 3-4 inches of foliage at the tip of the branch. Tucker, A., and Hensen, K. 1985. How to Strike a Lavender Cutting. Lavender is difficult to grow from seed, requiring five weeks of cold stratification before planting and, according to North Carolina State University, six months before the seedling grows to transplant size. Vascular wilts are very destructive diseases with typical symptoms characterized by rapid wilting, browning, and dying of leaves and succulent shoots of plants followed by the death of the plant. It may snap if you force it to bend. This produces a safe. Avoid heavy organic mulches (sawdust, wood chips) as they can increase both fungal pathogens and insect problems. Sturdivant, L. and Blakley, T. 1999. Plant all species in a protected south facing location with well-drained soil within a pH range of 6.4-8.3. 1999 was dubbed the “Year of Lavender”; as a result there was an increased demand for information and literature concerning all aspects associated with lavender production. North Carolina citizens each year through local centers in the state's 100 counties Lavender grows best in light soil, sand, or gravel, in a dry, open and sunny position. In a study on the vegetative propagation of lavender by rooting of stem sections, 1 year old wood, various mixed wood, and three-year-old wood stem sections were compared. A typical plant after harvest What made it so helpful? One of my most favorite successes as a lavender farmer last year was the propagation of 500 lavender starts to plant in our new field. According to Tom DeBaggio, it self sows so prolifically that it can be treated as an annual. Culinary uses include flavoring vinegars, jellies, and salads. Spanish lavenders tolerate more acid soils than other lavenders but are not hardy and need to be treated as annuals and are generally grown as ornamentals. Prices can range from $10 to $15 per pound. Cuttings are placed in trays being careful not to allow leaves to touch soil surfaces, which can result in burning the leaves. Learn More About NC State Extension, We have several topic based e-mail newsletters that are sent out periodically when we have new information to share. L. stoechas oil is high in camphor (24-72 %), borneol, cineole, fenchone, (up to 34%), linalool acetate, and others. They proved through experimentation with mice that the essential oil of lavender did indeed facilitate falling asleep and a minimization of stressful situations. Remove all of the leaves from the lower 2 inches of the stem and then gently scrape the skin off the bottom portion of the stem on one side with a knife. He suggests taking 4″ cuttings from disease free plant material in spring when buds are beginning to form. To maintain varieties lines lavender should not be propagated from seed. While softwood cuttings are only available in spring, you can take hardwood cuttings in spring or fall. Under these conditions root growth is achieved by 14 days. It can reach 5 feet in height and 4 feet in spread with indented or scalloped leaves and very large violet-purple flower heads. Propagation of lavender from cuttings is easy and more likely to be successful than growing the plants from seeds. It needs very well-drained soil, so do whatever you can to provide that and definitely build raised beds. Foster, S. 1993. The following information was compiled from a literature review in 1999, which will hopefully provide helpful information sources to the interested grower. 1960. Lavender can produce well with an annual rainfall range of 300 to 1400 mm per year. Blossoms drain the plant of energy, and it’s unlikely that a stem will have the resources to form good roots if it is trying to bloom. DeBaggio, T., 1989. Rasteniev dni-Nauki. The English Physitian: or an astrologo-physical discourse of the vulgar herbs of this nation. The spikes are up to 1 3/4-inch long and 1/2 inch diameter. Plants grown from seed are variable in growth habit, color, and essential oil composition and are unsuitable for commercial harvesting. There are many cultivars of English Lavender including the white dwarf Nana Alba, also pink varieties designated Rosea, Jean Davis, and Lodden Pink, which may be the same cultivar. A U-shaped piece of wire can be used to hold the stem section firmly in place. 1995. The same thing that connects it to every corner of North Carolina: NC State Extension. When young, leaves are white with dense stellate hairs on both surfaces with strongly revolute margins. Commercial lavender plantations are usually established by planting in single rows spaced appropriately to allow tractor access. Cut hardwood stems just below a bump that indicates a leaf node. Because many lavender varieties are not winter hardy and some exhibit poor rooting ability, careful choice of cultivar is recommended. Few dozens of lavender plants growing in the backyard can make you rich. Growing dozens of lavender plants in the backyard of the house can make an individual earn a high profit. The best yields of essential oil were observed following application of ammonium chloride (N source) at 44 lb/ acre (El-Sherbany et al. Garden herbs as hosts for Southern Root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita ­ (Kofoid & White) Chitwood, race 3 ]. Raev, R., Jordanov, R., Zheljazkov, V., Rabotyagov, V., Craker, L., Nolan, L., Shetty, K. 1996. Agric. In China, Lavender is used in a cure-all medicinal oil called White Flower Oil. Lavender (Lavandula) is fragrant, drought tolerant and showy in the garden. Cuttings are then planted in 2.5 inch pots, pinched, and produce marketable plants in 6-8 weeks. XIV(6):27-29. Lavandin varieties (Lavendula x intermedia) produce both the highest yields of flowers and highest concentrations of essential oil per acre. You can also grow lavender … 51-57. In contrast, Dr. Art Tucker, of the University of Delaware, advises taking cuttings in the fall before the first freeze (August-Nov.) when stems are semi-hardened. L. heterophylla, grows up to 4 feet in height and is suitable for growing in containers. They are usually shorter than the calyces. Press the stem into the indention and cover the bare section with moist soil or a sphagnum moss and perlite combination. Fortunately, there’s a way to create your own lavender plants for practically nothing. LAYERING. In ancient Egypt it was used as a perfume and as an essential ingredient for incense. Peter Cole, London. The Business of Herbs. L. lanata, wooly lavander, is an exceptional potpourri plant because of its balsam-lavender fragrance. High light (12-14 hrs/day) and ventilation (fans) is required for optimal germination. XIV(5): 1-2, 32-36. Plants should be pinched back during the first year to avoid blooming so that the plant can put all of its energy into forming roots and lateral shoots. Update by Jeanine Davis, 2020: There is a renewed interest in growing lavender in North Carolina and many new, small lavender farms are now established across the state. Seed propagation is not ideal for most home gardeners, although it is the best propagation method to use for breeding new lavender varieties. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. This manual from the University of Maine is a more in-depth … Nauk. Its flowers are dried for crafting and for use in potpourri. Mana Kai Rangahou, New Zealand. Pruning lavender at least twice a year is an important way to ensure it stays bushy and healthy, so there’s no harm in taking the offcuts from routine pruning to create even more lovely lavender plants.. Oliver, P. 1996. The bioactivity of lavandula species against insects in India proved that the majority of the plants studied showed activity against insect pests (Sharma et al., 1992). Raev et al. or so below the surface. Fortunately, pre-grown plants in pots are freely and cheaply available at garden centres and even some supermarkets, so few gardeners consider it worthwhile raising their own.

commercial lavender propagation

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