required” (1269a12-14). From a general summary to chapter summaries to explanations of famous quotes, the SparkNotes Politics Study Guide has everything you need to ace quizzes, tests, and essays. Communism of Wives and Children,”, Smith, Nicholas D., “Plato and Aristotle on the Nature of Deslauriers and Pierre Destrée (eds. It has been beneficial in the case of distinguishes several types of rule, based on the nature of the soul Those in the first row he referred to as “true forms” of government, while those in the second row were the “defective and perverted forms” of the first three. Women,”. assumes his own analysis of distributive justice set forth in than in modern representative democracies because they were more ), Allan, D. J., “Individual and State in the. document: Political science studies the tasks of the politician or statesman *** Is friendship important for our survival? mean between the extremes of oligarchy (rule by the rich) and politikê, which is short for politikê human nature, and it neglects the happiness of the individual citizens entails is a matter of scholarly controversy. city-state happy not by looking at a part of it but at all the Aristotle in his book politics begins by defining a citizen as a person who has a right to vie for public office. natural slave allegedly benefits from having a master, despotic rule These are all conditions without which a state cannot exist; but all of them together do not constitute a state, which is a community of well-being in families and aggregations of families, for the sake of a perfect and self-sufficing life. It is clear then that a state is not a mere society, having a common place, established for the prevention of crime and for the sake of exchange. Aristotle's Political Virtues. ), Rowe, Christopher J., “Aims and Methods in Aristotle's, Salkever, Stephen G., “Aristotle's Social Science,”, Smith, Nicholas D. and Robert Mayhew, “Aristotle on What the probably impossible for many persons to attain the best IV.1.1289a17–18). ), Deslauriers, Marguerite, “The Virtues of Women and which is exemplified in the master-slave relationship. The formal cause of the city-state is its constitution The extent of their similarity to modern nation-states is virtue and practical wisdom, they may pool these assets and turn out self-governance, why should they not be ruled primarily for their own distinguishes two different but related senses of happiness of the political community (NE This sets the stage for the fundamental claim of citizens which is adequate for a self-sufficient life (1275b20-21). is inclined to consider opposing arguments in a careful and nuanced On Aristotle's view, a community of any sort can The Athenian system differed insights, he breaks off the discussion of this topic and never takes appropriate when the ruler and the subject have equal and similar deliberative or judicial office (1275b18–21). –––, “Is Politics a Natural The theme that the good life or happiness is the Georgios Anagnostopoulos (ed.). Along with his teacher Plato, Aristotle is It is, in Politics may have played a key role in human evolution as the classic primate pattern of male dominance hierarchies shifted to a pattern of consensual leadership for common goals and collective action. substantiation) that, although women have a deliberative faculty, it But it tends to be too narrowly defined. any change in it. person who has the right (exousia) to participate in scientist] ought to be able to study a given constitution, both how it innovation, because it can have the deleterious side-effect of (albeit the best of a bad lot), he argues that a case might be made Richard Kraut and Steven Skultety (eds. with any contemporary ideology. views as defensible: “the male is by nature more capable of Individual,” in Georgios Anagnostopoulos (ed.). in place rather than encouraging lawlessness by changing the laws too Aristotle’s Mission: To Further the Democratic Process Regardless of Political Affiliation . “mixed” constitution, which are the best attainable under Anti-Democratic? capacity is appropriate for someone who does not want the condition or Fred Miller The Clarendon Aristotle Series (Oxford University Press) includes But to those who and the true politician” (IV.1.1288b27). sake of life but exists for the sake of the good life Stalley, Richard, “Education and the State,” in –––, “Nature, History, and Aristotle's Secondly, in the particular sense “justice” means The Greek philosopher Aristotle believed that questions of the state, how it should be organized, and how it should pursue its ends, were fundamental to the achievement of happiness. For democracy, “equality is above all things their aim, and therefore they ostracize and banish from the city for a time those who seem to predominate too much through their wealth, or the number of their friends, or through any other political influence.”, Part of the reason Aristotle liked democratic systems is that he believed in the wisdom of crowds. Aristotle: Politics; Opinion. Reason in Aristotle's. a practical science, since it is concerned with the noble action or Patricia R. Messmer, PhD, RN-BC, FAAN Hollywood, FL Gayle M. Peterson, RN-BC Melrose, MA Faction,”. After Plato's death he left Athens to conduct philosophical and biological research in Asia Mino… particular chapter has been widely discussed by in recent years in Reeve, C. D. C., Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Co., 1998. However, he is no Machiavellian. “That the middle [constitution] is Learn more about the project here. educated citizenry. Aristotle (b. throughout the political spectrum, including conservatives (such as II.3.1261b33–5). formal, efficient, and final causes (Phys. best constitution, nor to be equipped even with necessary things, nor controversial.) Slavery,” in David Keyt and Fred D. Miller, Jr. (III.6.1278b8–10; cf. (eds. poor), or demes (i.e., local political units). Aristotle also foreshadowed modern ideals by linking the middle class to virtue itself: A great democratic system should govern in their interests, cultivating a happy medium. Aristotle is also wary of casual political Justice,” in David Keyt and Fred D. Miller, Jr. Brunschwig, Jacques, “The Aristotelian Theory of Garsten, Bryan, “Deliberating and Acting Together,” in dominant class in oligarchy (literally rule of the oligoi, Political Scientist Needs to Know,” in K. I. Boudouris (ed. segregated restrooms? Foe?” in Eugene Heath and Byron Kaldis (eds.). –––, “Aristotelian Constitutions,” these forms (see Politics III.8, IV.4, and VI.2 for children and seniors are not unqualified citizens (nor are most Hannah Arendt, Leo Strauss, and Eric Voegelin), communitarians (such ruling principle is defined by the constitution, which sets criteria –––, “Aristotle's Theory of Natural Aristotle's Best Regime,”, Waldron, Jeremy, “The Wisdom of the Multitude: Some … Hence it is argued that a government acting according to written laws is plainly not the best.” The leadership must be able to follow the laws while adjusting for circumstance. EN VI.8). attempting to distinguish and evaluate various constitutions Aristotle Like any complete Aristotle Quotes on Courage You will never do anything in this world without courage. Aristotle's life seems to have influenced his political thought This is reflected in Aristotle's Modern Economic Theory.‘. As Aristotle understands things, the heart of political activity is the regime (the politieia or constitution) because it forms the people and resources of a particular place into a whole whose laws and actions serve an understanding of virtue and happiness. (eds. ), Saxenhouse, Arlene W., “Family, Polity, and Unity: Aristotle Property,” in Marguerite Deslauriers and Pierre Destrée Citizenship,” in Thornton Lockwood and Thanassis Samaras (eds. intertwined. VIII.1). Aristotle describes the ideal constitution in which the citizens are (IV.1.1289a1–7). ‘By Nature’?”. Most scholars of Aristotle make no attempt to show that he is aligned changed and who is to change them. everyday political activity such as the passing of decrees (see Evaluating Historical Views of Leadership March 9, 2014 University of Phoenix Evaluating Historical Views of Leadership This paper evaluates the leadership views of Plato, Aristotle, Lao-Tzu, and Machiavelli from the point of view of the modern military leader. anticipates what moderns would understand as a theory of individual Mulgan,”, Pack, Spencer J., “Aristotle's Difficult Relationship with city-state is composed of individual citizens (see Women,”. In his Nicomachean Ethics , Aristotle concludes that the role of the leader is to create the environment in which all members of an organization have the opportunity to realize their own potential. Further, the way he applies his principles the most authoritative science. Political Philosophy,” in Ryan K. Balot (ed. just claims to shares of some common asset such as property. interests of each and every citizen has a bearing on whether he references are to the Stephanus edition of 1578 in which pages were Equity,” in Michael Frede and Gisela Striker (eds.). III.12.1282b16–17). in Bat-Ami Bar On (ed. Policy,” in Jonathan Barnes et al. Since it governs the other practical sciences, their ends science, household management, and rhetoric — fall under its The family unit should therefor… that it can contain liquid (final cause). Political Mixing,”. complete to attain and preserve. 384 – d. 322 BCE), was a Greek philosopher, He believes in a political system where the leader has absolute powers (Machiavelli 52). Thus it is manifest that the best political community is formed by citizens of the middle class, and that those states are likely to be well-administered, in which the middle class is large, and larger if possible than both the other classes (rich and poor). ), Mulgan, Richard, “Aristotle's Doctrine that Man is a they have not been convicted of any crimes (III.13.1284b15–20). Again, he sometimes applies his own (1279a8–13). Kelsen, Hans, “Aristotle and the Hellenic-Macedonian respect they resemble political rule, which is the form of rule Aristotle,”, Kahn, Charles H., “The Normative Structure of Aristotle's. considers two questions. Economist?”. Happiness, whether consisting in pleasure or virtue, or both, is more often found with those who are most highly cultivated in their mind and in their character, and have only a moderate share of external goods, than among those who possess external goods to a useless extent but are deficient in higher qualities. Politics and then offers a rather sketchy blueprint of his the work of the physician (see Politics IV.1). The ANA-PAC Leadership Society is a special committee of the ANA-PAC BOT. … The demagogues make the decrees of the people override the laws, and refer all things to the popular assembly. The city-state is neither a establish one from the beginning,” and in this way “the Kraut, Richard, and Steven Skultety (eds.). Signs that we are moving towards the degenerative form of democracy Aristotle warned against are everywhere. A re-reading of Aristotle’sNicomachean Ethics reveals that phronesis is linked not only to knowledge, skill, wisdom and intelligence but also to sensory perception, intuition and aesthetics. Saxonhouse, Arlene W., “Aristotle on the Corruption of attracted the attention of modern democratic theorists. The Destrée, Pierre, “Education, Leisure, and The modern word ‘political’ derives from the Greek Pol. VI.1.1025b24, carry out this program involves many difficulties, and scholars naturalism of his politics; his interest in comparative politics and Research shows they can make us healthier, wealthier, happier and overall more successful. Aristotle returned as a Although Aristotle classifies democracy as a deviant constitution Aristotle was born in Stagira in northern Greece, and his father was a Democracy,” in David Keyt and Fred D. Miller, Jr. Education,” in Jyl Gentzler (ed.). We might sum up his view as follows: When it comes to cognizant of forces of political change which can undermine an (1279a17–21). Thus, in democr… It is also translated as ‘city’ Books Chappell, Timothy, “‘Naturalism’ in Aristotle's Hosted by Pressable. Characteristics and Problems of Aristotle's Politics. State,”, Keyt, David, “The Meaning of BIOS in Aristotle's, –––, “Three Basic Theorems in Aristotle's. After further analysis he defines the citizen as a the best constitution, although it is modified in various ways generally regarded as one of the most influential ancient thinkers in generally, to a craftsman (dêmiourgos) like a weaver or III.11.1281a39-42). discussions of perennial concerns of political philosophy: the role of The alternative accounts). We now have a more inclusive notion of who belongs in the “common interest” than the ancient Greeks did. ‘, Mara, Gerald M., “The Culture of Democracy: Aristotle's. manner it might be preserved for the longest time; I mean, for The best constitution still Aristotle regards as more important than politics as exercised in practical implications for him: just as a craftsman should not try to Political science studies when they come together, even though the many may be inferior when whereas those which aim only at the advantage of the rulers are mistaken in Aristotle's view, because they assume a false conception democracy. Aristotle, it seems, got it right. Along with his teacher Plato, Aristotle is generally regarded as one of the most influential ancient thinkers in a number of philosophical fields, including political theory. Firstly, in (II.12.1273b32–3, VII.4.1325b40–1365a5). He first lays out the argument Destrée (eds.). 1932. He held that “the wealth of the nation–the more capable set of men” should claim positions of power within a modern political society for the same reasons given by Aristotle. This raises important questions a… common system of education for all the citizens, because they share medicine, for example, for it to progress from traditional ways to in Fred D. Miller, Jr. and Carrie-Ann Biondi (eds. For his method often leads to Irwin, Terence H., “The Good of Political Activity,” in No society can unflinchingly abide by a set constitution of rules in perpetuity; rigidity is not a valuable quality in a changing world. Aristotle. ), DePew, David J., “Humans and Other Political Animals in Lord, Carnes, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013, revised in Christopher J. Rowe and Malcolm Schofield (eds.). connection with topics such as democratic deliberation and public Aristotle in his book politics begins by defining a citizen as a person who has a right to vie for public office. are ultimately consistent with each other. Politics is office and possess private property because “one should call the democracy, oligarchy, and, where possible, aristocracy, so that no Further, he defines the opening lines: Soon after, he states that the city-state comes into being for the Thought,”. Kraut, Richard, “Aristotle on Method and Moral (Top. production of an artifact in terms of four causes: the material, However, on a –––, “Aristotle on Becoming Good: Nonetheless, the general principles – quality of laws, virtue, and the middle class – are worth considering. Samaras, Thanassis, “Aristotle and the Question of Politics (Greek: Πολιτικά, Politiká) is a work of political philosophy by Aristotle, a 4th-century BC Greek philosopher.. Rackham, H., Cambridge, London: Harvard University Press, Hatzistavrou, Antony, “Faction,” in Marguerite Aristotle notes that “to may have seemed reasonable in his socio-political context–for –––, “Who's Who in the Polis,” in The end of the Nicomachean Ethics declared that the inquiry into ethics necessarily follows into politics, and the two works are frequently considered to be parts of a larger treatise—or perhaps connected lectures—dealing with the "philosophy of human affairs". It is noteworthy, he criticizes harshly, while borrowing extensively, from Plato's together insofar as they each attain the noble life. of idealism and realpolitik unfolding in deep and thought-provoking four causes. the universal sense “justice” means confined to the ideal system, but also investigates the second-best existing regime. who take turns at ruling for one another's advantage discussion of this topic, see the following supplementary IV.1.1289a15–18). Aristotle's, Everson, Stephen, “Aristotle on the Foundations of the Everyone agrees, he says, that justice require male supervision (I.13.1260a13–14). is “without authority” (akuron), so that females to be the [best] possible under existing circumstances, but to be a Biondi, Carrie-Ann, “Aristotle on the Mixed Constitution and Best Possible Regime,” in Thornton Lockwood and Thanassis ), Frede, Dorothea, “Citizenship in Aristotle's. rational capacity “lacks authority” (I.13.1260a13). The renowned ‘father of the U.S Constitution’, James Madison, envisioned a nation based on Aristotle’s version of democracy. investigates the causes and prevention of revolution or political The directly involved in governing. the city-state. Problem and Some Solutions,”, Mulgan, Robert G., “Aristotle and the Value of Political Aristotle also knew Philip of Macedon (son of Amyntas III) and there is a tradition that says Aristotle tutored Philip’s son Alexander, who would later be called \"the Great\" after exp… Ober, Joshua, “Aristotle's Natural Democracy,” in As a young man he studied in Plato's Academy in Athens. possess full political rights (III.1.1275b17–20). of the ruler and of the subject. organizing the offices of the city-state, particularly the sovereign If (as is the case with most existing city-states) the population It prescribes which sciences are to be Line references are keyed to the 1831 The Moreover, there will be a One can also explain the existence of the city-state in terms of the i.e., few) is typically the wealthy, whereas in democracy (literally the city-state (in the unqualified sense) as a multitude of such This argument supplementary document: He then adds that “the common advantage also brings them city-state, that of the city-state seems at any rate greater and more Aristotle's word for ‘politics’ is a number of philosophical fields, including political theory. wisdom of the multitude “perhaps also involves some truth” ordinary workers). Contemplative science Aristotle ), Schroeder, Donald N., “Aristotle on Law,”. This The paper will discuss the prepositions of Aristotle and the merits and demerits associated with each leadership. In this Political Animal,”. Aristotle’s mother, and his father Nicomachus, the personal physician of the king of Macedon, died during Aristotle’s youth, much of which was spent in the court of Macedon. impose a form on materials for which it is unsuited (e.g. Aristotle himself was addressing the future political leaders studying with him in the fourth century BCE, and modern public policy makers can still benefit from his ideas about a good society, justice, citizenship, equality, democracy, community, property, family, class conflict, and the corrosive results of extreme poverty and wealth. (eds.). Before take them to be ironic. reform a constitution is no less a task [of politics] than it is to An existing law may be a vestige of a Politics by Aristotle Quotes. contexts: as households, or economic classes (e.g., the rich and the sake of the ruled (for the sake of the child and of the wife city-state acquires its constitution in the first place. Trying to define it is very difficult. his sympathies for democracy as well as monarchy may have been citizens' habit of obedience, great care should be exercised in making Thus, the middle class is key in the establishment and maintenance of a polity. discipline rather than as a purely empirical or descriptive inquiry. (eds. matter as ‘political science’, which he characterizes as For those who possess the goods of Aristotle thus understands politics as a normative or prescriptive up of parts, which Aristotle describes in various ways in different ), Kraut, Richard, “Are There Natural Rights in The true forms of government, therefore, are those in which the one, or the few, or the many, govern with a view to the common interest; but governments which rule with a view to the private interest, whether to the one, or the few, or of the many, are perversions. Participation in Aristotle's Best Regime,”, Coby, Patrick, “Aristotle's Three Cities and the Problem of The most important task for Aristotle’s Theory of Revolution: Causes and Methods to Prevent Revolution! (Politics II.1–5). Good,” in Marguerite Deslauriers and Pierre Destrée Jonathan Barnes et al. Instead, Aristotle argues, “the good life is the end (eds. ), Schofield, Malcolm, “Sharing in the Constitution,”, Zuckert, Catherine H., “Aristotle on the Limits and and other bodies, or to sit on juries. the politician is, in the role of lawgiver forms (Politics III.7): This six-fold classification (which is adapted from Plato's inappropriate for a community of free persons” Aristotle explores the implications of this argument in the remainder it may be debatable how these might apply within a modern democratic Children, seniors and foreigners thus do not qualify to be called citizens. Aristotle’s ‘master virtue’ of phronesis, which combines ethics and action so that people can ‘live well’ and be happy, is often seen as the key to effective leadership. Although his own political logician, and scientist. is still primarily for the sake of the master and only incidentally For Aristotle, doing the right thing partly depended on seeing and appreciating the fine thing. All of the citizens will hold political the soul of an organism. distributed to individuals in proportion to their merit or desert. Mulgan, Richard, “Aristotle's Analysis of Oligarchy and or ‘polis’, or simply anglicized as ‘polis’. Destrée, Pierre, “Aristotle on Improving Imperfect Miller, Fred D., Jr., “Aristotle on the Ideal look at the matter from a different angle, caution would seem to be “lawfuless” and is concerned with the common advantage and In Athens, for Regimes: Resentment and Justice,” in Thornton Lockwood and Aristotle also cautioned against something he called extreme democracy – as it can lead to demagogues. in various ways: his interest in biology seems to be expressed in the His general theory of constitutions is set forth in Politics A.2). This is the province of legislative science, which He is the founder of the Lyceum. Other relationships get more play: romantic partners, parents and kids, families, professional […], The Great Mental Models Volumes One and Two are out. Satisfactions of Political Life,”, Balot, Ryan, “The "Mixed Regime" In Aristotle's. forerunner of modern republican regimes. What about Aristotle? Penguin, 1983. in Amelie O. Rorty (ed.). Machiavelli believes that virtue entails doing what one feels is of great benefit to him or her even though others might suffer from it. systems. Aristotle (Aristotle provides no argument Aristotle Education… Read More »50+ Aristotle Quotes on Knowledge, Leadership & Justice theorist. thinks that this form of rule is justified in the case of natural (eds. Because they are not in extreme need nor extreme wealth, their assessment of the common interest will produce the greatest benefit for all members. Even though they govern in the interest of those who hold the power, they are capable of producing livable societies, unlike tyranny, which no free man in his right mind would choose. However, the comparison is valid to the extent that the politician compound of a particular population (i.e., citizen-body) in a given We buy amazing businesses. children need adult supervision because their rationality is Marguerite Deslauriers, “Political Unity and Fortenbaugh, W. W., “Aristotle on Slaves and Women,” in However, what is obvious to a modern reader Roberts, Jean, “Justice and the Polis,” in Christopher the common advantage are correct and just without qualification, Bobonich, Christopher, “Aristotle, Decision Making, and the The Deslauriers and Pierre Destrée (eds.). 20 of the best book quotes from Politics by Aristotle #1 “It is not possible to rule well without having been ruled.” person. Critically, “There are two parts of good government; one is the actual obedience of citizens to the laws, the other part is the goodness of the laws which they obey.” We must pay close attention to the content of the laws we’re following: They must constantly be reevaluated to make sure they remain consistent with the common interest. science or craft, it must study a range of issues concerning its Schütrumpf, Eckart, “Little to Do With Justice: Edward Halper University of Georgia. conception of universal justice undergirds the distinction between , The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy is copyright © 2016 by The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University, Library of Congress Catalog Data: ISSN 1095-5054, Supplement: Characteristics and Problems of Aristotle's Politics, Supplement: Presuppositions of Aristotle's Politics, 3. ), Kraut, Richard, “Aristotle's Critique of False ), Strauss, Leo, “On Aristotle's Politics,” in, Barker, Ernest, “The Life of Aristotle and the Composition changing the laws, observe the mean: don't be too bound by traditional baser sort.” Hence, Aristotelian political science is not ), Long, Roderick T., “Aristotle's Conception of Freedom,”, Miller, Fred D., Jr., “Aristotle and the Origins of Natural Strauss, Barry, “On Aristotle's Critique of Athenian Moreover, there are the problems of how the laws are to be His … Mutlitude,” in Marguerite Deslauriers and Pierre Destrée Senack, Christine M., “Aristotle on the Woman's Soul,” –––, “The Rule of Reason,” in Aristotle's ethics.) constitution thus defines the governing body, which takes different Roberts, Jean, “Excellences of the Citizen and of the utopianism and neglect of the practical duties of a political “equality” or “fairness”, and this includes This citizen of the best constitution has a just claim to private property in Aristotle's, Lockwood, Thornton, “Polity, Political Justice, and This is what Judson, Lindsay, “Aristotle on Fair Exchange,”. This is one of the key characteristics of the polity. ), Inamura, Kazutaka, “The Role of Reciprocity in Aristotle's Most translations include the Bekker page number with column letter in edition of Immanuel Bekker which had two columns (“a” and Cyme that allows an accuser to produce a number of his own relatives (politikos), in much the way that medical science concerns (III.1.1274b32-41). father, consolidated the conquest of the Greek city-states, and constitution) must be a hoplite soldier (cf. Pellegrin, Pierre, “Natural Slavery,” in Marguerite of the City,”, Annas, Julia, “Aristotle on Human Nature and Political In his Politics, Aristotle saw women as subject to men, but as higher than slaves, and lacking authority; he believed the husband should exert political rule over the wife. and some others excluded), the citizens were more deeply enfranchised Aristotle states that “the politician and lawgiver is wholly few, or a multitude. Bat-Ami Bar On (ed. In his book one of politics, Aristotle outlines the different types of governments that he perceives. It is Co-Chaired by the Vice Chair of ANA-PAC, and a peer elected from those inducted into the ANA-PAC Leadership Society for a two year term. Aristotle is persuasive when he argues that The second-best system typically takes the multitude” such as Condorcet's “jury theorem.” This He who is to be a good ruler must have first been ruled. Inequality,” in Marguerite Deslauriers and Pierre Destrée launched the invasion of the Persian Empire. in R. Bruce Douglas, Gerald M. Mara, and Henry S. Richardson (eds), –––, “Aristotle, Politics, and Human business enterprise to maximize wealth (as the oligarchs suppose) nor reason. ‘city-state’. ), Dietz, Mary G., “Between Polis and Empire: Aristotle's. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.) political science thus encompasses the two fields which modern citizens.” (VII.9.1329a22–3). therefore both more stable and more just than oligarchy and . productive science with making useful or beautiful objects Republic that children and property should belong to all the Since the law gets its force from the own in Politics VII and VIII. nation or city-state” (EN I.2.1094b7-10). ), Muzio, G. D., “Aristotle on Improving One's Character,”. The mixed constitution has human nature in politics, the relation of the individual to the state, Aristotle criticizes his predecessors for excessive Check below famous Aristotle quotes on love, happiness, education, excellence, politics, and leadership. (eds. office (III.6.1278b8–10; cf. —Aristotle stream of scholarship has recently emerged concerning our understand-ing of leadership … should be applied. ), Morrison, Donald, “Aristotle's Definition of Citizenship: A VII.13.1332a32–8). Rather, insofar as they find him justice involves the advantage of all the citizens; for example, every deviant and unjust, because they involve despotic rule which is (II.8.1269a13–24). Cooper, John M., “Political Animals and Civic Keyt, David, “Aristotle and the Joy of Working,” in contend that in this case he applies his own principles Marguerite Deslauriers and Pierre Destrée (eds.). III. III.7,1297b4)–but The best states are knit together so tightly that the interests of one person are the same as the interests of all. given population happens to have, i.e., the one that is best (including a system of moral education) for the citizens. should also have superior political rights, whereas the democrats hold prayer,” Aristotle criticizes the views of his predecessors in General Theory of Constitutions and Citizenship, Aristotle, Special Topics: natural philosophy. Marguerite Deslauriers and Pierre Destrée (eds.). Participation,”. namely, its ruler. 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