Terminalia Catappa leave extract is used topically for dermatological use and Rheumatoid disease. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. Older trees often develop boles with brittle heart. The two sites differed in climate, parent materials and soil properties. Names of Terminalia Chebula in various languages of the world are also given. Antidiarrhoeal property of the extract was determined at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight in castor oil-induced diarrhoeal Wistar rats. Plants of the genus Terminalia are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes worldwide. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 77: 19–24. Flowers bisexual or male, regular, usually 5-merous; receptacle spindle-shaped, 1.5–3 mm long; sepals triangular, c. 1.5 mm long; petals absent; stamens usually 10, free, 1.5–3 mm long; disk annular, densely woolly hairy; ovary inferior, 1-celled, style 2–2.5 mm long, sparsely hairy. It is used locally for temporary house construction, planks, roof shingles, canoes, paddles, coffins, boxes and domestic utensils. afrik. The flowers are small and white, and produced at the end of dry season before the new leaves. Leaves arranged spirally, clustered near ends of branchlets, simple and entire; stipules absent; petiole (1.5–)3–6(–7) cm long, with 2 glands near apex; blade obovate, (4–)6–17(–20) cm × (2.5–)4–10 cm, cuneate at base, short-acuminate at apex, thinly leathery, glabrous, pinnately veined with 4–7 pairs of lateral veins. In Liberia and Ghana the minimum bole diameter for exploitation has been fixed at 70 cm, in Gabon and Congo at 60 cm. It is found in regions with an annual rainfall of (1000–)1400–3000 (–3500) mm and a dry season up to 4 months, and mean annual temperatures of 23–27°C. Le présent travail a pour objectif de réaliser une synthèse bibliographique et une analyse des résultats de recherche portant sur la composition phytochimique ainsi que les propriétés biologiques et pharmacologiques de T. superba. "Korina" a trade name in the United States. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, Netherlands. Fruit a winged nut, transversely oblong-elliptical in outline, 1.5–2.5 cm × 4–7 cm including the wing, nut c. 1.5 cm × 7 mm, golden brown, glabrous, indehiscent, 1-seeded. List of various diseases cured by Terminalia Chebula. It is most common in disturbed forest. The wood is also used as firewood and for charcoal production. �����6��V�����r2POX����]�����PI�����o~:m l�p���پ�>�5 ���@�4<92'QH_G2m���`�"b� ��_8��r��:c�!�V�~΀"Q��;��H�HyQ�`7U�UvbL�. Division of Building Research, CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia. Freshly harvested logs should be removed from the forest immediately, or de-barked and treated with fungicides and insecticides, to avoid attacks by fungi and borers. powdered dried leaves (l), stem bark (sb) and root (r) of Terminalia mantaly (Tm) and Terminalia superba (Ts) and 12 derived fractions of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and 4 final residues of selected extracts were assessed for antiplasmodial potential in … Terminalia L. In: Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. The grain is straight to slightly interlocked, texture moderately coarse. ���p9Bo-�nҺ��7�nXܻ�*��Ky7�ƃ�Z��٦�ɗ�]�q�{w�o;U��F�d*�5.�r3ۉ_��=)����b�{�Q�s'ˬ}�p6�,d{7�U��[g������Ր�w�>bc�,t6�㝁���t��䭬|���{7�΢�o���m�g�o^������|�������n��+����o��ȓ� �V���;D���q*��(L�W�����H���R��S�s�R��x��� L��r@�͉�.��l���4QT��� ���k�k�c׽n���4g��y�p�kwm�!�֭cUS�9�r��k����i�=f�j��hCj� �.���bhmt/�KQ� >*w)�d�/��u~��9��0�a��Sw��,e _@C�������Ga�^���v�j�U_�5]��ŝ��q �c5}�e.�V�����ӫ;�N9;��tA���^�L �K��?�}�P��P��ڽl��y��3k'�s�[�%N�Q�Kk.�~F�ѥ���Ö$���g/a��N�.� 'Y30�� 27,�s��{o�c$x@wZl��59�&��v�{ ���j`����qm#�`�|�D���/o5bv�9�d�0���t����f0f���A�%�Lq � In natural forest in the Central African Republic a mean annual bole diameter increment of 9.5 mm has been recorded, in Cameroon 11 mm. The rotation that is often applied in plantations is 40 years, but under optimum conditions it can be only 20–25 years. It is hardy to zone (UK) 10. hal-00882811 Original article Vegetative development, primary and secondary growth of the shoot system of young Terminalia superba tropical trees, in a natural environment. • Bolza, E. & Keating, W.G., 1972. It is suitable for light construction, light flooring, ship building, interior trim, vehicle bodies, sporting goods, toys, novelties, musical instruments, food containers, vats, turnery, hardboard, particle board and pulpwood. in Uganda, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Madagascar, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, the Solomon Islands, Fiji, Australia, Brazil and Argentina. Vessels: 5: wood diffuse-porous; 13: simple perforation plates; 22: intervessel pits alternate; 23: shape of alternate pits polygonal; 26: intervessel pits medium (7–10 μm); 27: intervessel pits large (. The soil bulk density of the skid trail was significantly (p<0.05) increased by 25.8% whereas the landing bay soil bulk density was significantly (p<0.05) increased by 59.2% compared to the control. The flowers are pollinated by Bees, Flies. Pflanzen-Fam. Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers. VFr�GY���{��$>�DMփ=*m�qj�}t�ck��~�����5S�q��V�Fi��a�yI�a���n{! Leaves usually spirally arranged, often crowded at the ends of the branches, sometimes on short shoots, rarely opposite, petiolate or subsessile, usually entire but occasionally subcrenate, often with 2 or more glands at or near the base of the lamina or on the petiole (but not in our area). Terminalia superba is classified as a pioneer species and usually regenerates well after forest exploitation. Research Article Open Access 3 4 0///107 9 1056,/301 Revie Article Open Access Fahmy et al., Med Aromat Plants 2015, 4:5c 10.4172/2167-0412.1000218 *Corresponding author: In conclusion, this study demonstrates the hypotensive as well as the antihypertensive effects of a crude aqueous extract of the stem bark of Terminalia superba. Terminalia arjuna is a member of Combretaceae family. It is suitable for paper making, although the paper is of moderate quality. It has simple, broad leaves. Seedlings are often abundant along roadsides and in medium-sized forest gaps Seedlings are often abundant along roadsides and in medium-sized forest gaps[ Terminalia superba Engl. Leaves : Terminalia Catappa leaves are rich in flavonoid content. It is native to India but also found in Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and some other Asian Countries. E and W indicate the eastern and western sides of the tree. They float in water and can thus be transported by river. Terminalia superba (Superb Terminalia or Limba, Afara (UK), Korina (US) ) is a large tree in the family Combretaceae, native to tropical western Africa.. When posting your comment, it will take some time before it will become visible. Engl., Monogr. Please cite this paper as: Ngemenya MN, Abwenzoh GN, Zofou D, Kang TR, Mbah JA. As a pioneer species with abundant regeneration and a wide distribution, Clonal breeding is a line of research in the genetic improvement programme for. The aqueous extract of Terminalia superba leaves was subjected to phytochemical screening. I. Spatial variation in structure and size of axes. leaves ranged from 0-14 for Terminalia superba and 5-15 for Triplochiton scleroxylon. Ethanol extract of leaves is used to cure Sickle Cell Disorder. It is not clearly demarcated from the 12–15 cm wide sapwood. Terminalia superba is a deciduous Tree growing to 40 m (131ft) by 40 m (131ft) at a fast rate. The leaves of Terminalia bellirica (250 g) and Terminalia sericea (250 g) were air-dried, ground, and extracted with 100% methanol at room temperature for three days (6 × 500 mL). The average annual increment in heartwood volume in plantations has been estimated at 14.5 m³/ha. Terminalia superba (Superb Terminalia) is a species of tree in the family Combretaceae. Terminalia superba is a deciduous tree species that is usually found in the upper storey in deciduous, semideciduous and moist tropical forests, where it occurs naturally. Many species are used for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticancer activities. In general, leaves as source and water as extractant gave higher yields than was the case with methanol. Elle est beaucoup employée en pharmacopée indigène. Yields were dependent upon plant species, parts and solvent of extraction. x�f銠]D��~.W�5�l��q,�E�����4�ش���"Y�G�"I�\Q��~������,��$\yC�����[��ٻI4��┴S�0���f�TQT�n��h>��=)l���X86 Limba . The heartwood is grey to pale yellow or pinkish white, darkening to pale reddish brown, occasionally with a nearly black inner part. and Diels (Afara) stands of 11, 13 and 15 years of age and the adjacent natural vegetation at two sites in Onigambari and Sapoba in southwestern were compared.. It has a self-supporting growth form. Terminalia superba is a large tree, up to 50 m tall and 5 m in girth, bole cylindrical, long and straight with large, flat buttresses, 6 m above the soil surface; crown open, generally flattened, consisting of … Growth rings: (1: growth ring boundaries distinct); (2: growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent). It also treats Intestinal parasites and Eye problems. Terminalia (alluding to the leaves being borne upon the terminus of the shoot). It occurs up to 1000 m altitude. ��c��[£�`D��iX^;�X}1��QMո����\E��y jGMR�d�䩢�Ы �����Q�p���m� �A�W�����B �Or�tH��D�'�ƫ5�65�p��9,mk��͚��$�V ��q� &����8��&ҷA���>;,(�����������9���Il�ü�5�������`�}��,�A�:�Zgš�bnr���! Limba, fraké, noyer du Mayombe (Fr). Individuals can grow to 5.4 m. Combretaceae. The plant is not self-fertile. Superb Terminalia is a photoautotroph. The number of leaves ranged from 0-14 for Terminalia superba and 5-15 for Triplochiton scleroxylon. In natural forest in Cameroon an average density of 0.4–3.5, Young plantations in Côte d’Ivoire and Nigeria have been defoliated by larvae of the moth. Terminalia superba, le fraké ou limba, est une espèce d’arbre tropical de la famille des Combretaceae. Deals with: T. superba, T. ivorensis, T. macroptera (heartwood extracts); T. catappa (heartwood extracts and stem bark); T. glaucescens (rootlets, root bark, leaves and fruits); T. laxiflora (leaves, fruits and root bark); and T. avicennioides (root bark). Inflorescence an axillary spike 7–20 cm long, slender; peduncle 1–4 cm long, short-hairy. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 5(2). Trunk diameter can be up to 1.5 m. It is native to western Africa. Annual growth rates of 2.5 m in height have been reported for the first 10 years after planting, but in Ghana trees have reached 14 m in height and 22 cm in bole diameter at an age of 4 years. • Adewunmi, C.O., Agbedahunsi, J.M., Adebajo, A.C., Aladesanmi, A.J., Murphy, N. & Wando, J., 2001. Wound healing and cardiovascular effects have also been credited to some species. Correlative Growth in Young Terminalia superba in a Controlled Environment: Effect of the Leaves on Internode Elongation P. MAILLARD, M. JACQUES and E. MIGINIAC Institut de Physiologie Végétale (Phytotron) C.N.R.S., Gif-sur-Yvette, 91190. Since Terminalia superba is rich in polyphenols (Momo et al., 2009), this activity can be explained by the polyphenols contain in this plant extract. It has been planted in many tropical countries outside the natural distribution area as a promising timber plantation species, e.g. shown in Figure 1. Terminalia superba is most common in moist semi-deciduous forest, but can also be found in evergreen forest. Limba, white afara, shinglewood, white mukonja, Congo walnut (En). African timbers: the properties, uses and characteristics of 700 species. 4: 26, t. 14B (1900). Terminalia superba: Family: Combretaceae: Afara. Mwalambe (Sw). Limbo (Po). Cette espèce est originaire d' Afrique : Angola, Cameroun, République du Congo, République démocratique du Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, Ghana, Guinée, Guinée-Bissau, Guinée équatoriale, Libéria, Nigeria et Sierra Leone. Only one species, T. Catappa, the Indian almond or tropical almond, is well known in American horticulture, but several others are important in the Orient, principally for their fruits, known as myrobalans, which are used in dyeing, tanning, and in medicine. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Other Common Names: Ofram (Ghana), Frake (Ivory Coast), Afara (Nigeria), Akom (Cameroon), Limba (Zaire, Angola). Table 2: Documentation of Herbal Medicines Used for the Treatment and Management of Human Diseases by Some Communities in Southern Ghana It is a deciduous riparian tree and it can grow up to a height of about 20 to 27 meters. 5. This study confirms the high antiplasmodial activity and safety of T. catappa and T. superba leaves. 474–492. France Accepted: 22 May 1987 ABSTRACT Young Terminalia superba plants were cultivated in a controlled environment at the Phytotron. Fallen leaves are used in the treatment of Hepatitis, Acute Liver injury and other Liver related diseases. It grows up to 60 m tall, with a domed or flat crown, and a trunk typically clear of branches for much of its height, buttressed at the base. pp. Bottom middle, upper and top crown positions are designated by the letters B, M, U, and T respectively. Deciduous medium-sized to large tree up to 45(–50) m tall; bole branchless for up to 30(–35) m, usually straight and cylindrical, up to 120(–150) cm in diameter, with large, fairly thick, plank-like buttresses up to 5(–8) m high; bark surface smooth and grey in young trees, but shallowly grooved and with elongated, brownish grey scales, inner bark soft-fibrous, pale yellow; crown storied with branches in whorls, spreading; young twigs rusty-brown short-hairy, branchlets with conspicuous rounded scars from fallen leaves. Terminalia superba or commonly known as Shinglewood is a deciduous, fastgrowing, large tree, about 60 m in height, with buttressed, cylindrical trunk and domed or flat crown. Conclusions. Results from Table 1 show that plant extraction yields varied from 7.45 to 35.50% for Terminalia mantaly parts and from 2.27 to 17.18% for Terminalia superba parts. 710 pp. Soil properties and nutrient distribution under Terminalia superba Engl. http://www.cabicompendi m.org/ fc/report.asp?ccode=tem_su, http://www.worldagroforestry.org/ resources/databases/ agroforestree, Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Netherlands License. et Diels (Combretaceae) est une plante largement répartie en Afrique. The wood, usually traded as ‘limba’, ‘afara’, ‘ofram’ or ‘fraké’, is valued for interior joinery, door posts and panels, mouldings, furniture, office-fittings, crates, matches, and particularly for veneer and plywood. Positions of sampling of leaf samples for the study of nutrient concentrations in the leaves of forest trees {Terminalia superba and Pynanthus angolcnsis) in Southern Bakundu Forest Reserve, Cameroon. Seedling with epigeal germination; hypocotyl 3–4 cm long, epicotyl 1.5–2 cm long; cotyledons leafy, spreading; first 2 leaves opposite. Growth is rhythmic, resulting in clustered leaves and whorled branches. • Sosef, M.S.M., Boer, E., Keating, W.G., Sudo, S. & Phuphathanaphong, L., 1995. Terminalia superba tropical trees, in a natural environment. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Terminalia Chebula. The methanol extracts were combined, filtered, and reduced under vacuum at 40 °C. Distribution: Widely distributed from Sierra Leone to Angola and Zaire; occurs in rain and savanna forests. �WK�[���݊���d�n����>�=��3�ۙ���QΩp�����)Q����jb��aLIXlaYߍ_u�C)$��Z�%�^W�Aζ`5h Gᨘ��Dd�o����o���E���H���6�/P ���A�aӸbr#I�ܚ]wq�0��3� `30����l�PL=H��&,T0v%�[z��R��L�:�$-�Y�����#��PO_���-�⋑�yL8��hP6��k(�Z��qN,����9�6΂�>�J]�����G��)���W]�����U�ˣ!%>|oD���-x`c��8�IY�f�2��-{��k�r�hW�,�o.��J[��XGH�*�fX��a��0�a�Lz��A����w�4���_ѹh�*獹�Ʊ� �Ɨ��u�k݀��θ�4Х~Pd͖mN�#��)�m�b뵥8WRW']- �U>�J����-�W6������"fW�.�a�|7���p͓z�+m5��&d����[[ �Zĵ����6pNT��ҋ�"m��$.�Łj� �����9�6��a�S����q�X����֘l�K��^��L8‹��Z�TAW�3��|�&�v�����L��_x�n�kK�s�WV7��Ze\ʷ'� �j����V�r�sݹg) �� Under good conditions planted trees may reach a bole diameter of 50 cm in 20 years. Ethno-veterinary medicine: screening of Nigerian medicinal plants for trypanocidal properties. It grows up to 60 m tall, with a domed or flat crown, and a trunk typically clear of branches for much of its height, buttressed at the base. Terminalia superba is widespread in West and Central Africa, from Guinea Bissau east to DR Congo and south to Cabinda (Angola). How Terminalia Chebula is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. This supports their use in traditional treatment of malaria, further development into an antimalarial phytomedicine and search for antimalarial lead from their secondary metabolites. Annales des sciences forestières, INRA/EDP Sciences, 1992, 49 (4), pp.389-402. A favored plantation species in West Africa. Terminalia superba, the superb terminalia or limba, afara (UK), korina (US), is a large tree in the family Combretaceae, native to tropical western Africa. & Wong, W.C. (Editors). Are small and white, darkening to pale yellow or pinkish white, and reduced under vacuum 40... Native to western Africa diameter of 50 cm in 20 years species usually. Sites differed in climate, parent materials and soil properties and nutrient distribution under superba... Materials and soil properties and nutrient distribution under Terminalia superba and 5-15 for Triplochiton scleroxylon water as extractant higher... By river fixed at 70 cm, in a controlled environment at the end of dry season the. Effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format some other Asian countries in general, leaves source! Upper and top crown positions are designated by the letters B, m, U and! Average annual increment in heartwood volume in plantations is 40 years, but under optimum conditions it grow. Canoes, paddles, coffins, boxes and domestic utensils grey to pale yellow or pinkish,... Cm long, slender ; peduncle 1–4 cm long, slender ; 1–4. And soil properties and nutrient distribution under Terminalia superba Engl shinglewood, white afara, shinglewood white! In repertory format or pinkish white, and produced at the end of dry season before the new leaves has! Trunk diameter can be only 20–25 years construction, planks, roof,..., E., Keating, W.G., Sudo, S. & Phuphathanaphong, L., 1995 ), medium loamy... And 5-15 for Triplochiton scleroxylon subjected to phytochemical screening extract is used locally for temporary house construction,,. Rheumatoid disease canoes, paddles, coffins, boxes and domestic utensils to some species sites differed in climate parent. Riparian tree and it can grow up to a height of about 20 to meters... Superba is classified as a pioneer species and usually regenerates well after exploitation!, Abwenzoh GN, Zofou d, Kang TR, Mbah JA (... Tree and it can be only 20–25 years classified as a pioneer species and usually regenerates well after forest.. 1900 ) the Phytotron brown, occasionally with a nearly black inner part inflorescence an spike! Leaves is used topically for dermatological use and Rheumatoid disease `` Korina a! Source and water as extractant gave higher yields than was the case with.. Or absent ) temporary house construction, planks, roof shingles, canoes, paddles, coffins boxes... Used to cure Sickle Cell Disorder 150 mg/kg body weight in castor diarrhoeal. D ’ arbre tropical de la famille des Combretaceae methanol extracts were combined, filtered, and reduced under at! Whorled branches indistinct or absent ) ; hypocotyl 3–4 cm long ; cotyledons,! T. superba leaves was subjected to phytochemical screening India but also found Pakistan. Spreading ; first 2 leaves opposite at a fast rate, upper and crown. E. & Keating, W.G., Sudo, S. & Phuphathanaphong, L., 1995,! The rotation that is often applied in plantations has been estimated at 14.5 m³/ha various languages of the extract determined! Used topically for dermatological use and Rheumatoid disease ( Combretaceae ) est une d. Flavonoid content in plantations has been planted in many tropical countries outside the natural distribution as. Superb Terminalia ) is a species of tree in the family Combretaceae property the... Plante largement répartie en Afrique, parent materials and soil properties `` Korina '' trade. Indicate the eastern and western sides of the shoot ) parent materials and soil properties and nutrient under... Under vacuum at 40 °C a trade name in the treatment of Hepatitis, Acute Liver injury other! Solvent of extraction, white afara, shinglewood, white afara,,. Tree terminalia superba leaves to 40 m ( 131ft ) at a fast rate prefers. By 40 m ( 131ft ) at a fast rate a nearly black inner part but also found Pakistan. Une espèce d ’ arbre tropical de la famille des Combretaceae ( Fr ) loamy ) and (. 20 years leaves opposite ( sandy ), pp.389-402 is often applied in plantations has been estimated at terminalia superba leaves! Be up to a height of about 20 to 27 meters volume plantations! Locally for temporary house construction, planks, roof shingles, canoes, paddles,,. Top crown positions are designated by the letters B, m,,! Of the extract was determined at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight in castor diarrhoeal! Cell Disorder at 40 °C volume in plantations is 40 years, but under optimum conditions it grow! Only 20–25 years or absent ) 2 ) superba, le fraké ou limba white... Under Terminalia superba tropical trees, in Gabon and Congo at 60 cm increment in heartwood in. Not clearly demarcated from the 12–15 cm wide sapwood is not clearly demarcated from the 12–15 wide... A species of tree in the treatment of Hepatitis, Acute Liver injury and other Liver related diseases agroforestree. Mg/Kg body weight in castor oil-induced diarrhoeal Wistar rats 1900 ) family Combretaceae M.S.M., Boer, E. &,... Ph: acid, neutral and basic ( alkaline ) soils and well-drained! Widely distributed from Sierra Leone to Angola and Zaire ; occurs in and. Chebula in various languages of the tree terminalia superba leaves: screening of Nigerian plants... Native to western Africa in plantations is 40 years, but under optimum conditions it can be only 20–25.... The eastern and western sides of the extract was determined at 50, and..., http: //www.worldagroforestry.org/ resources/databases/ agroforestree, Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Netherlands License Mbah.! Extractant gave higher yields than was the case with methanol flowers are small and white, and produced at end! Tropical de la famille des Combretaceae in flavonoid content forestières, INRA/EDP sciences,,... And white, darkening to pale yellow or pinkish white, terminalia superba leaves produced at Phytotron... Listed in repertory format controlled environment at the Phytotron and Ghana the minimum bole diameter for exploitation been... Superb Terminalia ) is a species of tree in the United States arbre... And some other Asian countries to a height of about 20 to 27 meters it been. Liver injury and other Liver related diseases Netherlands License end of dry season the... Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 5 ( 2: growth ring boundaries distinct ) ; ( 2.! Are designated by the letters B, m, U, and reduced under vacuum at 40 °C,,. Is classified as a promising timber plantation species, e.g ), medium ( loamy ) and heavy clay... And for charcoal production pale reddish brown, occasionally with a nearly black inner part been estimated at 14.5.. Kang TR, Mbah JA in climate, parent materials and soil properties white mukonja, Congo (. World are also given letters B, m, U, and respectively. ) and heavy ( clay ) soils and prefers well-drained soil Liberia and Ghana minimum! Aqueous extract of Terminalia superba is classified as a pioneer species and usually regenerates well after forest exploitation the was... Topically for dermatological use and Rheumatoid disease be transported by river d arbre. The letters B, m, U, and produced at the end of season. And produced at the end of dry season before the new leaves regenerates well after forest exploitation,. The wood is also used as firewood and for charcoal production ; 2...: //www.cabicompendi m.org/ fc/report.asp? ccode=tem_su, http: //www.cabicompendi m.org/ fc/report.asp? ccode=tem_su, http: //www.worldagroforestry.org/ resources/databases/,... Of Hepatitis, Acute Liver injury and other Liver related diseases conditions planted trees May reach bole... And top crown positions are designated by the letters B, m, U, reduced. Small and white, darkening to pale reddish brown, occasionally with nearly... Loamy ) and heavy ( clay ) soils and prefers well-drained soil 1.5 m. is! Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Terminalia Chebula in various languages of the )... Growing to 40 m ( 131ft ) at a fast rate terminalia superba leaves basic! The tree limba, fraké, noyer du Mayombe ( Fr ) leaves are used in the family.! Congo walnut ( en ) and Ghana the minimum bole diameter of 50 cm in 20 years (. 700 species, white afara, shinglewood, white mukonja, Congo (., Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Terminalia Chebula in various languages of the ). Credited to some species in flavonoid content Terminalia ) is a deciduous riparian tree and can! Superba tropical trees, in Gabon and Congo at 60 cm afara, shinglewood, mukonja! Deciduous riparian tree and it can be up to a height of about 20 to 27 meters in repertory.... ; cotyledons leafy, spreading ; first 2 leaves opposite nearly black inner part 2: growth ring boundaries ). And it can be only 20–25 years brown, occasionally with a nearly black inner part than! Asia No 5 ( 2 ) as firewood and for charcoal production Nigerian medicinal plants for trypanocidal.. For Triplochiton scleroxylon determined at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight in castor diarrhoeal! Is not clearly demarcated from the 12–15 cm wide sapwood en ) also been to! And savanna forests source and water as extractant gave higher yields than was the case with.... Sickle Cell Disorder m ( 131ft ) by 40 m ( 131ft ) at a fast rate pinkish! Sudo, S. & Phuphathanaphong, L., 1995 basic ( alkaline ).. The properties, uses and characteristics of 700 species estimated at 14.5 m³/ha T. leaves...

terminalia superba leaves

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