Alternative energy. (2007), found that only 11.2% of producers were women. Eight percent of fish smokers did not mention any second choice species because they used only one species for their activities. Thus, approximately 3 kg of wood is necessary to smoke 1.5 kg of fish, this is similar to Ngoma’s (2005) finding in his study on improving fish smoking in Brazzaville. Research Article This difference is due to the scarcity of Kribi mangroves relative to other species (Angoni et al., 2015). On average, a traditional oven has a capacity of 528.5 kg of fish and consumes 1,204.5 kg of wood with a smoking time of 53 hr. Indeed, there was no significant difference (F = 1.761, df = 242, p = .138) between wood quantities used and respondents’ age groups. Related Articles: Fluorescence: A Secret Weapon in Wood Identification; Scans/Pictures: As you can see below, Mango gets considerably darker when a finish has been applied. Resource renewal is also threatened, as long-term conservation plans are not in operation in most areas, and little or nothing is being done to address the overconsumption of this resource. Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below, Creative Commons Non Commercial CC BY-NC: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License (. We found that cinderblock ovens have a smoking time of 5 hr. Fish smokers’ ages ranged from 20 to over 60. <>stream However, and perhaps most significantly, it is also due to the fact that the fish smokers surveyed by Djessouho (2015) used very small circular ovens, unlike the fish smokers in our study, the majority of whom used big suspended ovens. Some only purchased it, and others, in addition to purchasing it, also collected their own wood. (d) Palm nuts waste. Alejandro Estrada The different uses of mangrove wood were similar in all sites, but the quantities of wood extracted from different sites varied, with sites of high fish landings registering the highest fuel-wood turnover. Our choice of fieldwork sites was thus partly determined by the relationship that the IRAD and MINEPIA had with fishing communities. Although wood smoking contributes to the physicochemical properties of fish, it does not always achieve fish smokers’ goals. However, interventions are necessary in order for fish smokers to become aware of the benefits of these improved cinderblock ovens. The flora consists essentially of tree species with a dominance of Rhizophora racemosa. This has put severe pressure on mangrove forests, leading to steady deforestation. The Pearson Correlation Test (r = .952) showed a strong correlation between the amount of wood consumed and the number of fish smoked. This difference is likely due to different wood species being used, as well as to varying costs. It is impossible to determine what kind of wood it is, where it was stored, or what it was used for; this makes it unsafe to use for cooking. Figure 8. Studies in Benin, Togo, and Ivory coast (Abotchi, 2010; Chabi et al., 2014; Oulaï et al., 2007) have found, like us, that all fish smokers are women. endstream On average, each supports a family of 3 to 6 people. Ninety-three percent of our respondents purchase the wood they use, which is mainly red mangrove (Rhizophora racemosa). A large percentage (76%) of wood used by fish smokers is red mangrove wood. Sustainable management of mangrove forests in West Africa: A new policy perspective? We have grouped them in first choice species (the main ones used for fish smoking), second choice species (averagely used) and third choice species (least used). In fact, many local ordinances forbid harvesting it. Population growth has greatly increased the pressure on these resources in recent years. A balance needs to be found between consumption and preservation: This is the challenge for all parties involved in the fight for sustainable mangrove management in Cameroon. Fish smokers have well-defined requirements for their activities. Figure 3. Because there is no electricity in some villages in southwest Cameroon, and also because of population growth, there is considerable pressure on forest resources, which results in increasing deforestation. It has a harder, more dense wood which means it burns hotter and longer when compared to other charcoal types. Mangroves are important not only for the needs of local population, but because they have a significant influence on climate change as they sequester 5 to 6 times more carbon than conventional forests (Bilé, 2012). Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. Some respondents had not come across cinderblock ovens. This is more than 11,000 hectares lost per year, which equals 4.4% of the total area of mangrove forests every year. It also cools the fire. Fishing camps have been widely established throughout them, and mangrove wood is harvested for many purposes, but most notably as fuel for fish smoking. 2020-12-02T18:09:39-08:00 However, if your charcoal is smoking, don’t assume that the smoke coming from it is just as good as smoke from wood. (c) Circular oven. Smoker box (optional) Small aluminum pan. The overexploitation of mangroves also threatens the sustainability of fish smoking activities. Whether in quantity and cost of wood, or in smoking time, a traditional oven uses twice as much as a cinderblock oven. Fifty-two percent of respondents are large-scale smokers and are mainly located in Eyengue, Idenau, and Down Beach. Fish smokers were asked how far they had to travel for their wood supply and the impact that distance had on their lives. I would like to thank the Ministry of Forests and Wildlife and the Ministry of Fisheries and Animal Industry, through their departmental delegation of Fako, for facilitating field trips in the study areas. Some society journals require you to create a personal profile, then activate your society account, You are adding the following journals to your email alerts, Did you struggle to get access to this article? When there was a smoking session, the weight of the fish and of the wood used for smoking was measured and recorded. These differences are due to the fact that in Pouokam’s (2011) study site, the mangrove forest stocks are almost exhausted, and this is putting pressure on other species such as forest trees and fruit trees. Preliminary quantitative impact assessment of wood extraction on the mangroves of Douala-Edea Forest Reserve, Cameroon, Utilisation du bois dans les pêcheries côtières du Cameroun [The use of wood in Cameroon’s coastal fisheries], Performance d’un dispositif amélioré de fumage (four Chorkor) sur la qualité du poisson fumé dans la commune d’Aplahoué (Sud-est du Bénin)/[Performance of an improved smoking device (Chorkor furnace) on the quality of smoked fish in the municipality of Aplahoue (Southeast Benin)], Évaluation de la qualité microbiologique du chinchard (Trachurus trachurus) au cours du processus de fumage traditionnel [Assessment of the microbiological quality of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) during the traditional smoking process], Nouveau concept de séchage et de fumage artisanal des aliments: Application en milieu de pêche artisanale au Gabon [New concept of artisanal drying and smoking of food: Implementation in artisanal fisheries in Gabon], Etude socio-économique et technologique de la production du poisson fermenté et séché (Guedj) au Sénégal [Socioeconomic and technological study of the production of fermented and dried fish (Guedj) in Senegal], Sustainable utilization of mangroves using improved fish-smoking systems: A management perspective from the Douala-Edea wildlife reserve, Cameroon, The implications of wood exploitation for fish smoking on mangrove ecosystem conservation in the South West Province, Cameroon. 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